Exosome Treatment Enhances Anti-Inflammatory M2 Macrophages and Reduces Inflammation-Induced Pyroptosis in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

 Oct 09, 2019

Publication: Cells

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective antineoplastic agent used to treat cancers, but its use is limited as Dox induces adverse cardiotoxic effects. Dox-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) can lead to heart failure and death. There is no study that investigates whether embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes (ES-Exos) in DIC can attenuate inflammation-induced pyroptosis, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, inflammatory cell signaling, and adverse cardiac remodeling. For this purpose, we transplanted ES-Exos and compared with ES-cells (ESCs) to examine pyroptosis, inflammation, cell signaling, adverse cardiac remodeling, and their influence on DIC induced cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, we used C57BL/6J mice ages 10 ± 2 weeks and divided them into four groups ( = 6-8/group): Control, Dox, Dox + ESCs, and Dox + ES-Exos. Our data shows that the Dox treatment significantly increased expression of inflammasome markers (TLR4 and NLRP3), pyroptotic markers (caspase-1, IL1-β, and IL-18), cell signaling proteins (MyD88, p-P38, and p-JNK), pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, and TNF-α cytokine. This increased pyroptosis, inflammation, and cell signaling proteins were inhibited with ES-Exos or ESCs. Moreover, ES-Exos or ESCs increased M2 macrophages and anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Additionally, ES-Exos or ESCs treatment inhibited significantly cytoplasmic vacuolization, myofibril loss, hypertrophy, and improved heart function. In conclusion, for the first time we demonstrated that Dox-induced pyroptosis and cardiac remodeling are ameliorated by ES-Exos or ESCs.