Plurisomes™ Composition

Plurisomes™ contain over 60,000 components. Below is a small sample of the many proteins, growth factors, transcription factors it contains.

Gene Name Description
ACTB Actin, cytoplasmic 1 Involved in the repair of damaged DNA.
AHCY Adenosylhomocysteinase Methylation
ALCAM CD166 antigen Required for normal hematopoietic stem cell engraftment in the bone marrow
APOA1 Apolipoprotein A-I Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues.
AR Androgen receptor Activated by binding testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and translocating into the nucleus
BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor
BMP4 Bone morphogenetic protein-4 Bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb development and fracture repair
BMP5 Bone morphogenetic protein-5 Promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons
BMP7 Bone morphogenetic protein-7 Transformation of mesenchymal cells into bone and cartilage
BMPR1A Bone Morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1A Maintains the proper identity of dermal papilla cells.
BRCA1 RING finger protein 53 Plays a central role in DNA repair by facilitating cellular responses to DNA damage.
CAT Catalase Encodes catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme in the bodies defense against oxidative stress. Catalase is a heme enzyme that is present in the peroxisome of nearly all aerobic cells. Catalase converts the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen and thereby mitigates the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide.
CCL11 Eotaxin Stimulates migration of eosinophils from the small blood vessels in the lungs
CCL2 Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 Recruitment of monocytes to sites of injury and infection (MCP-1)
CCL24 Eotaxin-2 Stimulates the migration of human eosinophil and basophil leukocytes.
CCL3 (MIP-1a,SCYA3) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha Proinflammatory activities in vitro including leukocyte chemotaxis (MIP-1a)
CCL4 (MIP1B) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta Chemoattractant for natural killer cells, monocytes (MIP-1B)
CCL5 RANTES/CCL5 Homing and migration of effector and memory T cells during acute infections
CCT4 T-complex protein 1 subunit delta Component of TRiC, a molecular chaperone complex that regulates telomere maintenance.
CCT7 T-complex protein 1 subunit eta Regulates telomere maintenance
CCT8 T-complex protein 1 subunit theta Regulates telomere maintenance
CNTF Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Pluripotent neurotrophic factor that plays a role in neuronal differentiation and survival.
CPN1 Carboxypeptidase N catalytic chain Immune system
CSF1 (M-CSF) Macrophage colony-stimulating factor Hematopoietic growth factor that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and activation of monocytes (MCSF)
CSF2 (GMCSF) Granulocyte-macrophage CSF Stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes (GMCSF)
CSF3 Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor Stimulates bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into circulation
CTNNB1 Catenin beta-1 Beta-catenin acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway.
CXCL13 (BLC) B lymphocyte chemokine/CXCL13 Chemotactic for B cells (BLC)
DDB1 DNA damage-binding protein 1 Protein, which is both involved in DNA repair and protein ubiquitination.
DEFA1B Neutrophil defensin 1 Immune system
DKC1 H/ACA ribonucleoprotein complex subunit DKC1 Telomere maintenance via telomerase, telomerase RNA stabilization.
DPPA4 Developmental Pluripotency-Associated 4 Part of the POU5F1/OCT4 complex, is a developmental pluripotency-associated protein that plays a role in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. DPPA4 is involved in the regulation of gene expression patterns that support the self-renewal and undifferentiated state of stem cells.
EGF Epidermal growth factor Epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor Receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family)
EPRS Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligase Functions as an effector of the mTORC1 signaling pathway by promoting, through SLC27A1, the uptake of long-chain fatty acid by adipocytes. Thereby, it also plays a role in fat metabolism and more indirectly influences lifespan
ERRFI1 (MIG6) Mitogen-inducible gene 6 Triggers antitumor effect and attenuates progesterone resistance in endometrial carcinoma cells (MIG)
ESRRB Estrogen-Related Receptor Beta Transcription factor that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. It functions as a key regulator of pluripotency-associated genes and contributes to the control of gene expression patterns that support the identity and function of embryonic stem cells.
FEN1 Flap endonuclease 1 Involved in replication and repair of rDNA and in repairing mitochondrial DNA.
FGF1 basic fibroblast growth factor Broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair
FGF10 (KGF) Fibroblast growth factor 10 Stimulates proliferation and differentiation of early progenitor cells within hair follicles. Induces anagen phase in resting hair follicles.
FGF2 Fibroblast growth factor 2 FGF2 and Wnt Signaling – These act synergistically with activin and nodal to maintain the pluripotency of human ES cells Angiogenic
FGF23 Fibroblast growth factor-23 Multi-functional hormone and a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. It plays a significant role in various metabolic processes. Essential for maintaining overall health and could potentially influence aging and longevity.
FGF4 Fibroblast growth factor-4 Embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion
FGF7 Fibroblast growth factor-7 Potent mitogen that regulates epithelial cell migration and differentiation
FIS1 Mitochondrial Fission 1 Protein Associated with mitochondrial dynamics and cellular aging processes.
FKBP4 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Plays a protective role against oxidative stress in mitochondria
FLT4 (VEGFR3) Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 Mediates lymphangiogenesis
FN1 Isoform 15 of Fibronectin Participates in the regulation of type I collagen deposition
FOXO3 Forkhead Box O3 A gene associated with longevity and age-related diseases, known for its role in promoting cellular repair and longevity.
FOXO4 Forkhead Box O4 Transcription factor whic plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, oxidative stress response, and longevity.
FST Follistatin Stimulates muscle growth. Boosts fertility, prevents muscle loss, prevents accumulation of fat molecules in the body. Improves sexual health.
GC Vitamin D-binding protein (HEL-S-51) Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.
GDF11 Growth Differentiation Factor 11 This protein plays a role in the development of the nervous and other organ systems, and may regulate aging.
GDF15 Growth/differentiation factor-15 Involved with regulation of inflammation, apoptosis, cell repair and cell growth
GDNF Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor Potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons
GH1 Growth hormone Stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration
GLIS1 Zinc finger protein GLIS1 Transcription factor that can be used with Oct-3/4, Sox2 and Klf4 to induce pluripotency.
GOT1 Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 1 Involved in biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. And important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection.
GSKIP GSK3B-interacting protein Neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Ternary complex enhances Wnt-induced signaling by facilitating the GSK3B- and PKA-induced phosphorylation of beta-catenin leading to beta-catenin degradation and stabilization respectively
HBEGF Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor Unique receptor for diphtheria toxin and functions in juxtacrine signaling in cells
HELLS Lymphoid-specific helicase Required for de novo or maintenance DNA methylation
HGF Hepatocyte growth factor Growth, motility, morphogenesis of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, hemopoietic progenitor cells & T cells
HIST4H4 Histone H4 DNA repair/replication, chromosomal stability. Protects telomeres from degradation and fusion.
hsa-mir-126 MicroRNA-126 Influences angiogenesis, vascular function, and tissue regeneration, crucial for age-related vascular decline and repair.
hsa-mir-146a MicroRNA-146 Modulates inflammatory responses and immune regulation, impacting aging-related inflammation and degenerative processes.
hsa-mir-155 MicroRNA-155 Regulates immune responses, inflammation, and cellular senescence, influencing age-related immune dysfunction.
hsa-miR-17-5p (miR-17-5p) hsa-miR-17-5p Prevents pulmonary fibrosis by targeting thrombospondin-2
hsa-mir-21 MicroRNA-21 Known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, influencing cellular senescence and regenerative processes.
hsa-miR-29a-3p MicroRNA-29a-3p Involved in regulating gene expression related to extracellular matrix remodeling, collagen synthesis, and tissue repair processes. It plays a crucial role in modulating fibrotic pathways, influencing cellular senescence, and contributing to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. hsa-miR-29a-3p's functions have implications for age-related pathologies, tissue regeneration, and the modulation of aging-related processes at the molecular level.
hsa-mir-335 MicroRNA-335 Regulates cell proliferation, migration, and tissue repair mechanisms, impacting age-related tissue regeneration.
hsa-mir-34a (miR-34a) MicroRNA-34a Involved in senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage response, with implications for aging and age-related diseases. A potent tumor suppressor, cancer stem cell inhibitor, and potential anticancer therapeutic.
hsa-miR-449a MicroRNA-449 Involved in cell cycle regulation, senescence, and DNA damage response, influencing cellular aging processes.
ICAM1 Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Role in inflammation and regulation of vascular permeability
IFNG Interferon gamma Antiviral activity, potent macrophage activator, antiproliferative effects on transformed cells
IGF1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 Important role in childhood growth, anabolic effects in adults
IGF2BP3 IGF binding protein-3 Insulin-like Growth Factor-2 mRNA Binding Proteins
IGFBP1 IGF binding protein-1 Regulates metabolic and vascular homeostasis
IGFBP2 IGF binding protein-2 Regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion
IGFBP3 IGF binding protein-3 Main IGF transport protein in the bloodstream
IGFBP4 IGF binding protein-4 Prolongs the half-life of the IGF and consistently inhibits several cancer cells in vivo and in vitro
IGFBP6 IGF binding protein-6 Promotion of apoptosis in some cells and inhibition of angiogenesis, act as a tumour suppressor
IL10 Interleukin-10 Inhibits the activity of Th1 cells, NK cells, and macrophages
IL11 Interleukin-11 Hematopoietic cytokine with thrombopoietic activity
IL12B Interleukin-12p40 Chemoattractant for macrophages, promotes the migration of bacterially stimulated dendritic cells
IL13 Interleukin 13 Central regulator in IgE synthesis, mediator of allergic inflammation and asthma
IL15 Interleukin 15 Regulates activation and proliferation of T and natural killer (NK) cells
IL16 Interleukin 16 Chemoattractant, modulator of T cell activation, and inhibitor of HIV replication
IL1A Interleukin 1 alpha Production of inflammation, as well as the promotion of fever and sepsis
IL1RN Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist Natural inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory effect of IL1
IL2 Interleukin 2 Regulates the activities of white blood cells (leukocytes
IL6 Interleukin 6 Both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and anti-inflammatory myokine; induces the acute phase response
IL6R Interleukin 6 receptor Regulates the immune response, hematopoiesis, the acute phase response and inflammation
IL7 Interleukin 7 T-cell development and survival, homeostasis of mature T-cells
KDR (VEGFR2) Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 Regulates endothelial migration and proliferation
KIT (SCFR) Stem Cell Factor Receptor Plays a role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.
KITLG (SCF) Stem Cell Factor Involved in hematopoiesis, spermatogenesis, and melanogenesis.
KLF4 Kruppel-like factor 4 Is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and somatic cell reprogramming. Evidence also suggests that KLF4 is a tumor suppressor. With other Yamanaka factors shown to safely reverse the age of complex tissues.
KPNA2 Karyopherin alpha 2 DNA Repair
LIN28A Protein lin-28 homolog A Binds to and enhances the translation of mRNAs for several metabolic enzymes, such as PFKP, PDHA1 or SDHA, increasing glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Which, with the let-7 repression may enhance tissue repair in adult tissue.
LTA (LT,TNFB,TNFSF1,TNLG1E) Tumor necrosis factor beta Target cell killing or growth stimulation, adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression & induction of differentiation
LUM Lumican Collagen
MCM3 DNA replication licensing factor MCM3 Required for DNA replication and cell proliferation. double-strand break repair via break-induced replication
MSH2 DNA mismatch repair protein Binds to DNA mismatches thereby initiating DNA repair.
MTOR Mechanistic target of rapamycin Regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, autophagy, and transcription.
MXRA5 Matrix-remodeling-associated protein 5 Has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties by limiting the induction of chemokines, fibronectin and collagen expression in response to TGB1 and pro-inflammatory stimuli.
MYC Myc proto-oncogene protein Yamanaka Factor. Shown to safely reverse the age of complex tissues.
NADSYN1 Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase
NANOG Nanog homeobox Involved in stem cell proliferation, renewal, and pluripotency.
NFE2L2 (NRF2) Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 A transcription factor which regulates the expression of antioxidant genes that protect against oxidative damage triggered by injury and inflammation.
NGF Nerve growth factor receptor Regulation of insulin-dependent glucose uptake, mediates survival & death of neural cells, circadian oscillation
NPM1 Truncated nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 Removal of oxidized rRNA molecules.
NTF3 Neurotrophin-3 Supports survival and differentiation of existing neurons, encourages growth and differentiation of new neurons
NTF4 Neurotrophin-4 Proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells; induce cell migration in melanoma
PADI4 Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 4 Tumor suppressor.
PARP1 Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase Plays a key role in DNA repair.
PAX6 Paired box protein Pax-6 Transcription factor with important functions in the development of the eye, nose, central nervous system and pancreas.
PDE4B Phosphodiesterase 4B Declined activity of this gene is documented in promoting myopia progression through downregulation of scleral collagen expression.
PDGFRA Platelet-derived growth factor Potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells (PDGF-AA)
PDGFRB Platelet-derived growth factor proliferation & migration of fibroblasts, osteoblasts, tenocytes, etc; blood vessel formation
PIGF Placental growth factor Pro-angiogenic factor
POU5F1 (OCT3,OCT4) POU class 5 homeobox 1 Yamanaka Factor vital for regulating pluripotency. Shown to safely reverse the age of complex tissues.
PRDM14 PR Domain Zinc Finger Protein 14 Essential for maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. It functions as a transcriptional regulator, controlling the expression of genes involved in cell fate determination and differentiation processes during early embryogenesis.
PRDX6 Peroxiredoxin-6 Plays a role in cell protection against oxidative stress by detoxifying peroxides and as sensor of hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling events. Might participate in the signaling cascades of growth factors and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by regulating the intracellular concentrations of H2O2
PRKDC DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination. Found at the ends of chromosomes, suggesting a further role in the maintenance of telomeric stability and the prevention of chromosomal end fusion.
PROK1 (EG-VEGF) Endocrine gland-derived VEGF Involved in normal and pathological reproductive processes.
PSMD2 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2 Participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair
PTEN Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase Tumor suppressor.
RCN3 Reticulocalbin-3 Has an anti-fibrotic activity by regulating the secretion of type I and type III collagens
RPA1 RPA1 Plays an essential role both in DNA replication and the cellular response to DNA damage
RPS3 40S ribosomal protein S3 Involved in DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage, DNA repair and apoptosis
RTEL1 Regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 ATP-dependent DNA helicase implicated in telomere-length regulation, DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. Also disassembles T loops and prevents telomere fragility by counteracting telomeric G4-DNA structures, which together ensure the dynamics and stability of the telomere.
SALL4 Sal-like protein 4 Sall4 modulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and early embryonic development by the transcriptional regulation of Pou5f1
SCGB3A2 Secretoglobin family 3A member 2 Has anti-fibrotic activity in lungs
SCUBE3 Signal Peptide, CUB Domain And EGF Like Domain Containing 3 Induces new hair growth
SCYL3 (MIP-5) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 delta Chemotactic for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes
SOX9 Transcription factor SOX-9 In addition to cartilage development, also acts as a regulator of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial stem/progenitor cells.
TCP1 T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha Telomere elongation
TDP1 Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 DNA repair enzyme. Acts on blunt-ended double-strand DNA breaks and on single-stranded DNA.
TERC Telomerase RNA component ncRNA found in eukaryotes that is a component of telomerase, the enzyme used to extend telomeres
TERT Telomerase reverse transcriptase Involved in maintaining telomere length, which is crucial for cellular senescence and aging.
TET1 Ten-Eleven Translocation 1 Essential for maintaining the epigenetic landscape necessary for proper differentiation and cellular identity
TFEB Transcription factor EB Acts as a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy, lysosomal exocytosis, lipid catabolism, energy metabolism and immune response.
TGFA Transforming growth factor alpha Activates a signaling pathway for cell proliferation, differentiation and development.
TGFB1 Transforming growth factor beta 1 Control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis
TGFB3 Transforming growth factor beta 3 Cell adhesion, ECM formation, migration of epidermal & dermal cells, M2 macrophage & T reg polarization
TGFBI Beta ig-h3 This protein plays a role in cell-collagen interactions
TIMP1 Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 Regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and disintegrin-metalloproteinases (ADAMs and ADAMTSs)
TIMP2 Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 Suppresses proliferation response to angiogenic factors, inhibits protease activity; remodelling of ECM
TNF Tumor necrosis factor alpha Systemic inflammation and acute phase reaction
TNFRSF1A Tumor necrosis factor receptor I Initiates the subsequent cascade of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases) mediating apoptosis
TNFRSF1B Tumor necrosis factor receptor II Activation and proliferative expansion of immunosuppressive Tregs, tolerogenic DCs and MDSCs
TP53BP1 TP53-binding protein 1 Plays a key role in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks in response to DNA damage.
UBA1 Ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 Essential for the formation of radiation-induced foci, timely DNA repair and for response to replication stress.
VCP Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase By controlling the steady-state expression of the IGF1R receptor, indirectly regulates the insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway.
VEGFA (VEGF) Vascular endothelial growth factor Stimulates the formation of blood vessels and shown to be neuroprotective against motor neuron degeneration.
WNT1 Proto-oncogene Wnt-1 Acts in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by promoting beta-catenin-dependent transcriptional activation
WNT2 Protein Wnt-2 Functions in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway that results in activation of transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family
WNT3A Protein Wnt-3a Is involved in hair follicle advancement through β-catenin flagging
WNT4 Protein Wnt-4 Plays a key role in cutaneous wound healing
XRCC5 X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 5 Telomere elongation. Required for double-strand break repair.
ZFP42 (REX1) Zinc finger protein 42 homolog Involved in ES cell self-renewal.
ZSCAN4 Zinc finger protein 494 Shown to rapidly lengthen telomeres and greatly enhance genomic stability.
ZSWIM7 Zinc finger SWIM domain-containing protein 7 Involved in early stages of the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway of double-stranded DNA breaks arising during DNA replication or induced by DNA-damaging agents.